Collective exploitation exists when the exploitation is collectively undertaken by collecting societies rather than individually exploited by the author or the owner of rights. On the one hand, all authors and owners of rights are protected collectively, while, on the other hand, the remuneration is gathered collectively. An example of collective exploitation is exploitation for copying within the scope of private use (Art. 19 in conjunction with Art. 20 CopA substantiated by Joint Tariffs 8 and 9).